FFY 2011 CHILD MALTREATMENT IN AMERICA – The following is a report breakdown of the Children’s Bureau, Department of Health & Human Services; Child Maltreatment Report for Federal Fiscal Year 2011. The information shared here has been collected through our 52 States Child Protective Services reporting system as coded and reported to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, aka NCANDS. You can find all information in this report as it was collected, graphed, and sent to NCANDS by following this link to the Child Maltreatment Reports on the Children’s Bureau website: Child Maltreatment | Children’s Bureau | Administration for Children and Families or by contacting email@example.com (1-800-394-3366)
Child Abuse and Family/Relationship Violence shared on our website, http://www.butterflydreamsabuserecovery.com You will find the prepared report here breaks down the many variables of the Child Maltreatment reports, in hopes to make it a bit easier for you to absorb the information without having to scroll through the some 237 page report as it was originally published by the Children’s Bureau.
Special mention for this report is given not only to Children’s Bureau and Department of Health & Human Services but also to the following;
The Administration of Children, Youth, and Families – (ACYF)
National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System – (NCANDS)
State and local agencies who submit these data to the Children’s Bureau
Caseworkers and supervisors who contribute to and use their State’s information system.
The time and effort dedicated by all involved individuals for the successful Federal-State partnership. **For the purpose of this report it was my choice to use the collected duplicate counts in order to show the direct reports made to each specific State reporting system. Duplicate counts reflects the numbers of total reports even if there was more than one report that involved the same child, meaning repeat or multiple reports for that same specific child. This allows you to view the collected complete reports of calls for your specific state.**
As in the Children’s Bureau PDF; I have used the Unique Count Reports (Single count no matter how many times the same child is founded to be a victim of a reported abuse) to provide demographics on the victims, the perpetrators, and the types of abuse percentages. You can view the PDF to see your State’s duplicate counts for this information. You will also find information on our nation’s CPS caseworkers and caseload. Also a definition of the specifics for each section of this report is provided before said section. If you have any questions pertaining to this specific report, you can direct your questions by emailing: firstname.lastname@example.org
Child Maltreatment Report
Federal Fiscal Year 2011
Written & Prepared by:
Patricia A. McKnight
Author/advocate/Speaker/Writer/Talk Radio Prod. & Host/Survivor
Founder; Butterfly Dreams Abuse Recovery
All 50 continental states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. Territories have Child Abuse and Neglect reporting laws, which mandate certain professionals to report suspected maltreatment to our CPS Agencies.
Federal legislation provides the foundation for Statutes by identifying a set of acts or behaviors that define Child Abuse and Neglect. The Child Abuse and Prevention Act, known as CAPTA (42USC#5101) amended by CAPTA Reauthorization Act of 2010 retained the existing definition of Child Abuse and Neglect as follows:
**Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation; or an act or failure to act, which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.**
Most States recognize four major types of maltreatment;
1) Neglect 2) Physical Abuse 3) Sexual Abuse 4) Psychological Abuse
These forms of abuse may be found individually against one specific child, or collectively against one or all children within a single household. (i.e.) – A family of three children may have Psychological abuse against one child, but may then have Neglect Maltreatment of all children, or perhaps have Physical and Sexual abuse directed toward one targeted child in that same household.
History of our National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, (NCANDS) – In 1988 CAPTA amendments directed U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services to establish a national data collection and analyses program. The Children’s Bureau in the Administration on Children, Youth, and Family collects and analyzes the data reported. NCANDS data are used for Child Maltreatment Reports, and are also used in the Child and Family Services Review of the States, in the Child Welfare Outcome Report to Congress used to measure the performance of several Federal programs.
When an allegation of child maltreatment is made to one of our State’s CPS Agencies there are a few processes that take place.
1) The report is either screened in for further attention by a CPS Agent
2) It is screened-out, meaning it is decided by the CPS intake worker – no further investigation is needed or the call does not meet the criteria for further investigation as mandated by the individual State Guidelines. Therefor the call is disregarded with a disposition of Unsubstantiated.
The calls that do meet the State Mandated Guidelines are investigated and the data is collected, which is then sent to the reporting system.
The data collected gathers and reports the following specifics of that investigation:
Data of CPS Reports Collected and sent to reporting system;
1) The children/child involved
2) Type of maltreatment suffered
3) Disposition as determined by the CPS Response
4) The risk factors of the child and the caregivers
5) The services provided
6) The perpetrators
You can find the final 2007 thru 2011 collected data at the above shared link for Children’s Bureau, Department of Health and Human Services Division.
The report submitted for Federal Fiscal Year 2011 (FFY 2011) shows an estimate of 3.4 MILLION referrals received by CPS Agencies throughout our 52 States. The national estimate of 3.4 million referrals includes 6.2 million children. Of these referrals, 45 States reported counts of both screened-in and screened-out referrals. Based on the data collected 60.8 percent were screened-in and 39.2 percent were screened-out. However, when I studied and formatted the attached Excel report, which used their same data reported; I found that our caseworkers and the alternative response systems actually found either Unsubstantiated or Non-Victims in an estimated 2.2 million of those reports. This report reveals only about 1.3 million of the calls reported to our CPS systems were actually founded and handled through the Child Protective Services investigation team.
While more than 2 Million reports were screened-in and had a CPS Response follow through, the national rate of reports receiving a disposition was 37.4 per 1,000 children as collected through our census calculations and reported as the national child population. You’ll see more details per each specific state on the attached Excel report below. In this report I’ve listed the State Child Population; Duplicate Counts to CPS, Disposition Determined, Alternative Response Information, False Allegations and those calls screened-out, which didn’t receive any response because the CPS intake worker or the Alternative Response reporter determined the guidelines were not met to make a determination of substantiated abuse.
First a look at referrals from 2007 vs. 2011; showing those states who reported both screened-in and screened-out calls, the percentage rate handled, the overall child population and the 52 state count of CPS Referrals.
2007> 37 states reporting –
Child Population Screened-in Screened-out Perct. Rate
48,710,415 1,252,025 760,903 41.3%
Total 52 State Census Child Population Reported; 75,342,238
Total Referrals to CPS Agencies; 3,112,000 est.
2011> 45 states reporting –
Child Population Screened-in Screened-out Perct. Rate
59,153,973 1,647,214 1,061,870 45.8%
Total 52 State Child Population Reported: 74,810,766
Total CPS Agency Referrals: 3,426,000 est. (The PDF REPORT & EXCEL Report prepared here reflect the total calls into CPS to actually total – 3,734,012)
As you read through the reported information it is important to note that differences in the State vs. National reporting and disposition, screened-in and screened-out, referrals show in the numbers for that specific state reporting collections. However, I believe it crucial for us to see the larger picture of how many collective reports are made; how many are given a CPS Investigation and the total number of calls that are Screened-out; written off because either the Agent or the Responder determined something did not meet that states specific criteria, whether it be because of lack of evidence or time allotted for all reports and diagnostics to be completed. Something or someone determined before an investigation could be processed that there was no further research needed on that specific call.
Another child was silenced and may never have another chance at being rescued!!
Let’s look at who was making the referrals to CPS during FFY 2011
Legal & Law Enforcement = 342,393 > 16.7%
Education Personnel = 327,804 > 16.0%
Social Services = 216,981 > 10.6%
Medical Personnel = 171,062 > 8.4%
Mental Health Personnel = 95,871 > 4.7%
Child Daycare Personnel = 14,638 > 0.7%
Anonymous = 183,611 > 9.0%
Other = 168,573 > 8.2%
Unknown = 144, 927 > 7.1%
Other Relatives of Victim = 138,141 > 6.7%
Parents of Victim = 134,362 > 6.6%
Friends & Neighbors of Victim = 90,655 > 4.4%
Alleged Victims = 7,910 > 0.4%
Alleged Perpetrators = 734 > percent not provided
Our nation’s CPS workers as reported by 47 States show a total of 32,970 caseworkers and investigators
Of that number:
Intake Call Screening = 3,031
Alt./Investigation = 19,898
The average caseload per worker with a completed report disposition = 70.7
What are the types of dispositions determined by the intake worker or CPS Agent? These are broken down into Seven Categories, then you have No Alleged Abuse, Other and Unknown. These CPS dispositions are listed below with its definition provided as per Children’s Bureau information. It’s also important to note any special information per these definitions is also written here.
1) Substantiated = An investigation which concludes maltreatment or risk of maltreatment as met by State Policy.
2) Un-Substantiated = A determination is made there was not sufficient evidence to meet State’s law to conclude or suspect maltreatment. Each state has their own specific guidelines which must be met before an investigation can be made into the allegation.
3) Indicated = Maltreatment could not be substantiated under the State’s law, but there was reason to suspect maltreatment of at least one child within the household.
4) Closed or No Finding = Disposition does not conclude a specific finding because the investigation could not be completed. This finding may be used when a family is outside of that specific CPS jurisdiction, the family cannot be located, or diagnostics or reports were not received with State’s mandated time limits. State’s Statutes mandate level of evidence needed to determine a substantiated or indicated disposition report by the CPS Agent. It’s important to note that Agencies respond based on these State definitions and requirement of level of evidence.
5) Intentional False = The person who made the report knew the allegation to be false at the time of the report.
6) Alternative Response Victim = Some states use ‘Alternative Response’ such cases do not usually make a specific determination of an allegation. Each State that uses Alternative Response also decides how to map its codes to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data Systems codes. Provision for this response, other than CPS investigation, is an outside source makes the determination as to whether the child was a victim of maltreatment.
7) Alternative Response Non-Victim = Response system did not determine child was a victim. Many of these programs provide services to families that either DO NOT have allegations or HAVE NOT met State’s Requirements for CPS Investigation.
Other Definitions for the reporting system;
Duplicate Counts – is a collection of all reports even if this includes more than one maltreatment report for each time the child was the subject of the reports
Unique Count – is counting the child just once no matter how many times the child was the victim of an investigation.
The 2011 Child Maltreatment PDF uses basic counts and demographics on the child in the UNIQUE count analyses. The disposition analyses uses ‘DUPLICATE’ counts in the totals for the calls reported to each State. This counting system is then used to determine funding and grants throughout the States and in the performance measures reported to Congress.
**The Excel Report I’ve provided also uses the ‘DUPLICATE COUNT’ to show the overall calls reported, Screened-in, Screened-out, Substantiated, Indicated, Alternative Responses, and False Allegations.** I’ve attached the Excel Report below**
Please review the breakdown of information for your specific state concerning the total numbers of Child Population, Substantiated Reports, Un-Substantiated, Indicated, Alternative Response Victims, Alternative Response Non-Victims, False Allegations, and the overall number of calls received by each specific state. Then I would like to draw special attention to the alarming number of calls that are determined Un-Substantiated because something did not meet state mandated requirements for further investigation. The reason I keep drawing attention to this is because the calls total almost 2/3 of the overall calls received. When abuse against our children is such a silent crime within our homes, how many violent abuses are these children still having to endure because of these state mandated guidelines and who determines what is needed for these guideline laws?
It is horrifying to learn that children who were subjects of a report for FFY 2011, ended in a GRAND TOTAL OF 3,734,012 calls to CPS and Alternative Response reporting systems. What’s even more terrifying is that a total of 2,360,614 were written off as either Un-Substantiated, Closed with no finding, No Alleged Abuse, or the Alternative Response determined there was no reason to investigate further.
When we can clearly see in this report that Intentional False Allegations is such a low number; how is it possible that for whatever reasons this many cases go without investigation or resolution for that child?
A review of calls received and how they were handled. These are the collective totals taken directly from the Children’s Bureau PDF Child Maltreatment Reports for FFY 2011 – ALARMING!!
***Total Child Population Reported 52 States = 74,830,766
***Total Number of Calls to CPS Services = 3,734,012
Findings or Disposition by CPS Agent or Alternative Response
Total Number Substantiated = 687,817 …………….Substantiated Calls = 18.5%
Total Number Indicated = 36,551………………………….Indicated Calls = 1.0%
Total Alternative Response Victims = 17,566……………….A. R. Vic Fnd = 0.5%
Total Determined Un-Substantiated = 2,360,614…………..Unsubstantiated = 58.9%
Total Alternative Response No-Vic = 344,341……………….A. R. No – Vic Fnd = 9.8%
Total Intentionally False = 1,728……………………….Intentionally False = 0.1%
Total Closed No Finding = 65,606………………………Closed No-Finding = 1.8%
Total No Alleged Abuse = 336,970……………………..No Alleged Abuse = 9.1%
Total ‘Other’ = 28,569…………………………………………………Other = 0.8%
Total ‘Unknown’ = 4,945…………………………………………..Unknown = 0.1%
**See the Excel Sheet at the bottom of this page for a more detailed look from each individual state**
Specific Child Demographics: Sadly before 1996 the reporting agencies didn’t view the stats for anyone under the age of twelve as being a victim. This report does provide information on children up to age 18, but in their demographics they only provide a percentage up to age 14; a specific of maltreatment type vs. age gives a closer look at the percentage details.
**Children under 1 year old make up the greatest percentage of victims = 21.2/1,000
1 yr. = 12.4%
2 yr. = 12.3%
3 yr. = 11.4%
6>8 yrs. = 16.4%
12>14 yrs. = 12.9%
This specific chart does not provide a percentage for ages 15>18
Victimizations per gender of child are changing greatly. According to these newly collected data the age old standard of 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 6 boys is pretty much blown away. The new data collected on the FFY 2011 results in:
Boys are 48.6%
Girls are 51.1%
When you compare the victimization rates it results in: Girls 9.6/1,000 & Boys 8.7/1,000. To put this into simpler terms- 1 in every 9.5 girls are the victim of maltreatment & 1 in every 8.5 boys are the victim of maltreatment.
Overall it is safe to determine that 1 in every 9 children are the victim of some form of maltreatment!!
There is a greater population of white race in the continental United States and I’m sure this may have some variable on the Race per Unique Count of Victimization, which is listed below. However, we do know from many various studies of victims, that the greatest numbers of perpetrators of maltreatment toward children are the white middle-class of
Race per Unique Count of Victimization:
White = 43.9%
Hispanic = 22.1%
African-American = 21.5%
Unknown = 6.7%
Multiple Race = 3.8%
American Indian = 1.1%
Asian = 0.8%
Pacific Islander 0.2%
Maltreatment Type Report for FFY 2011:
The Children’s Bureau PDF report breaks down the various abuses and their related percentage, also shared are the age of the victims. The greatest factor on this is the changes throughout the child’s age. Younger children under 1 up to 5 yrs. may suffer more from Neglect or Physical abuse, as the child gets older the offense of the abuse changes. **However, I believe it’s important to address Sexual Abuse, especially in young children who cannot yet talk or do not have the language to put into words what is happening to them, is a direct relation to the reports of Sexual Abuse as a whole. Many children become victims at a very young age and then live in the normalcy of this abuse, ‘because it’s always happened’, they become programmed to accept it or often are silenced by family or perpetrator so will rarely share what is happening. Until you can see physical evidence of rape on a child; molestation rarely leaves any physical signs other than a rash or irritation around the genital or anal area. If these are dismissed because we do not ask or the child cannot explain they are being touched there by someone or something, then there will never be an accurate count of this specific abuse. Sexual Abuse is a silent crime against young children who do not have the mentality nor the language to explain what is happening to them. Talk to your children early about Sexual Abuse and give them the language to tell someone they trust about any abusive act against them.
There are three major areas of maltreatment CPS estimated out in the following manner:
• More than 75 percent (78.5%) suffered neglect
• More than 15 percent ( 17.6%) suffered physical abuse
• Less than 10 percent (9.1%) suffered sexual abuse
Age of Victim vs, percentage per Type of Maltreatment:
<1-2 34.6% 30.1% 24.0% 21.3% 2.7%
3-5 15.3% 20.8% 16.3% 19.3% 14.0%
6-8 13.6% 16.2% 16.5% 17.7% 16.2%
9-11 12.0% 12.8% 14.1% 16.1% 18.5%
12-14 13.0% 11.0% 15.3% 14.8% 26.3%
15-17 11.2% 8.8% 13.1% 10.5% 21.8%
Other 0.2% 0.3% 0.6% 0.3% 0.5%
** Other = (Unborn, Unknown, 18 or older)
As we look at these maltreatment reports collectively, I would like to breakdown some other pertinent information and statistics for you. Reviewing information on the perpetrators of these crimes, I have shared the below collected data.
**Note: Child Maltreatment in whatever form is and should be prosecuted as a crime.**
Parents make up 80.8% of the offenders
Other Relative = 5.9%
Partner of Parent = 4.4%
Other = 4.5%
Unknown to the child = 2.1% of the offenses
**Unknown – relates to the Stranger Danger we teach them about, but when will we begin to teach them about family members and parents who abuse them every day?**
Gender of Perpetrator: is also something which seems to always be in discussion. According to these collected reports it has been broken down to the following totals:
Female Offenders = 53.6% Male offenders = 45.1%
Child Fatalities: again I believe there are defects in our reporting system. This is first based on the reported Nationally Estimated Child Fatalities = 1,570. However the case level data is in error due to either failing to list the appropriate cause of death for the child, which is also commonly done in Domestic Violence Fatalities as well. Also I refer to the 2011 PDF Report from the State of Illinois Department of Children and Family Services. On their specific report you will see they list 216 child deaths due to abuse, but when I review the State by State breakdown on the Children’s Bureau Reporting System Collections, I find Illinois reporting only 82 deaths related to Abuse/Neglect for 2011.
It is important to research our own individual State’s Protective Services Reports and determine the total deaths from Child Maltreatment reported.
Here is a link you can view the report for Illinois: http://www.state.il.us/DCFS/docs/CANTS2011.pdf . You will find a briefing of the Illinois DCFS PDF Report by following this link to Butterfly Dreams Abuse Recovery website child abuse information shared; ButterflyDreamsAbuseRecovery.com/Abouttricia –This link is on the About Tricia Page for speaking engagement purposes.
Child Fatalities & Offender:
Overall 78.3% of Child Death from abuse is caused by a Parent.
Mother Alone = 305 deaths = 26.4%
Father Alone = 177 deaths = 15.3%
Mother & Father = 254 deaths = 22.0%
Mother + Other = 150 deaths = 13.0%
Father + Other = 20 deaths = 1.7%
Non Parental Relative = 155 deaths = 13.4%
Unknown Perpetrator = 96 deaths = 9.3%
Finally they also shared some other related information pertaining to the many millions of reports into CPS Agencies. Of those cases investigated, they were able to assess the following about some of these reports. It’s always crucial to note the dangers of outside influential activities and how it relates to abuses against our children.
Other Influences Related to Maltreatment;
Drug Abuse was a factor in 1,022 cases
Alcohol Abuse was a factor in 905 cases
Domestic Violence was a factor in 1,091 cases
This is the completion of the Butterfly Dreams Abuse Recovery breakdown of the Children’s Bureau Child Maltreatment Report for Federal Fiscal Year 2011.
All of this information can be found on their website in graphs and Excel sheets to show the total of reports to CPS Agencies and their disposition if any. Please keep in mind there are only an average of 33,000 workers who have a completed caseload rate of 70.7%; what happens to the other 30% of these calls and how are they handled? Silent Children!!
I do hope you will review this report as a whole and of course the credit to all State and Local reporting personnel and services who submitted the collected data from the calls. It is a serious issue for us to begin addressing the growing numbers of abuses and those many millions of calls which are determined ‘Un-Substantiated’ are instead silenced voices and may never have hope of rescue unless we begin to all get involved as a United Society Against Child Maltreatment. Each one of us has the ability and the duty to make a call for help when we see or hear something. When your gut tells you something is going on, be more persistent in talking with and watching the child’s actions to determine if there is something going on that needs to be addressed. You may be the only hope that child has of surviving and recovering from actions much darker than imagination or physical signs will show.
Thank you for reading and please share this information. Please note, if you use our information could you please credit the time and effort it took to complete this specific report, the Excel State Call Reporting Sheet, and the work of Patricia A. McKnight and this publication on behalf of Butterfly Dreams Abuse Recovery.
Ms. McKnight is Author of ‘My Justice’ her own journey through hell as a child, the life it trained her to live resulting in 20 years of almost deadly relationship violence, then the children she had during those years. It is for Brett, Jessica, Miranda, Willow, Gavin and Maddox that she puts forth all her efforts today; in hopes that she can somehow break the emotional trauma on her children to help them become better parents and empower their children.
Author/Advocate/Speaker/Writer/Talk Radio Prod. & Host/Survivor
Founder of: Butterfly Dreams Abuse Recovery & Talk Radio Programming
“We all deserve roses in our garden of life. We all deserve to lay our heads down at night in peace and safety without fear of being attacked by those who love us. We all deserve a life with possibilities and hope. We all deserve to be loved and respected as we give this to others in return. We all will learn to spread our wings and live the life intended at birth. There is life after abuse, never give up on a child or yourself. Imagine, Create, Achieve your dreams.”
Patricia A. McKnight
©Butterfly Dreams Abuse Recovery April 2013